Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral infection of domestic cats. There are a large number of different strains of feline calicivirus with varying antigenicity and pathogenicity Feline calicivirus Feline calicivirus (new strains). Feline calicivirus may also cause cats to develop ulcers in the mouth, especially on the tongue. The clinical signs of Feline Calicivirus infection vary from cat to cat, from asymptomatic carriers to varying degrees of upper respiratory disease (from mild to severe). The acute form of calicivirus can cause upper respiratory symptoms, including a runny nose and eyes. Pete is known as "Pete the Vet" on his busy Facebook, Instagram and Twitter pages, regularly posting information on topical subjects and real-life cases from his clinic. Fortunately, FCV can generally be managed successfully in both individual cats and populations through vaccines, disinfection, and isolation and supportive care for affected cats. Most (but not all) cats gradually recover from the acute, active, phase of illness over a period of 7 – 10 days. Vaccinations should be given at intervals based on an individual risk assessment for each patient. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. It’s a common misconception that cats will never rid themselves of FCV once first infected. Lethal outbreak of disease associated with feline calicivirus infection in cats… QubeMDx provides diagnostic solution for clinicians to detect Feline Calicivirus at the point-of-care, leveraging the power of diagnosis in infectious disease management and prevention. It can also cause stomatitis, which is characterized by significant inflammation of the mouth and lips. Less commonly, lameness can occur due to involvement of the joints. Cats with a calicivirus infection often develop ulcers on the tongue, hard palate, gums, lips, or nose. But, antibiotics are liver toxic and they also lower the immune system, so they should be used only when deemed essential. Animal shelters, pet stores, catteries, and boarding facilities are considered high-risk spaces. Cats with feline calicivirus should be kept separate from other cats to prevent the spread of the disease. Feline calicivirus is extremely common in shelters, causing a range of effects from subclinical or mild disease to Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus (VSFCV). Each container must have their food and their own sandpit. The Spruce Pets uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral infection found in cats that is characterised by the presence of flu-like symptoms such as upper respiratory infection. Cats that have received all boosters of the FVRCP vaccine may have some immunity as the "C" in this vaccine stands for calicivirus. However, it can also appear among house cats. Vaccination against feline calicivirus is the best way to prevent this condition. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats, with widespread distribution in the feline population. Treatment and management of FCV infections. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Around 80% of cats that recover from FCV go on to become chronic carriers of the virus. This means, the same strain adapts and changes according to its environment and demands that this presents. In addition, some cats may contract a more serious strain that causes a virulent systemic infection. Rarely, the disease can even be fatal. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) Cause, Symptoms and Treatment. Ribavirin is one of the few antiviral agents able to inhibit FCV replication in vitro. In theory, anti-viral therapy (such as interferon or immunoglobulin therapy) may be given, but in practice, this is rarely used. Routine gingivitis does not ext… Meaning there’s no secondary infection or complications. The educational cat health content on All About Cats is written by or reviewed by our team of veterinary experts to ensure that it’s in line with the latest evidence-based veterinary information and health guidelines. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly contagious virus in cats, and one of the main causes of respiratory infection. Thanks for sharing valuable information. These cats may show no signs of disease but can still transmit the virus to other cats. While most cats eventually recover, fatalities do occur, and many recovered cats become chronic carriers of the virus. For more severe cases you will have to watch out for dehydration and if your cat is eating. There is no veterinary treatment for feline calicivirus, however antibiotics are usually prescribed to control a secondary infection. Treatment of Feline Calicivirus Infection in Cats. Vaccines given to kittens, with booster vaccinations in later life as needed, ensure that FCV is usually effectively controlled in pet cats. Feline calicivirus exists as a wide variety of strains, meaning a cat can get infected many times throughout its life, in a similar way to humans picking up a common cold time and again. The treatment of feline calicivirus includes prescription medication such as antibiotic drugs to cure bacterial infections. It’s common for cats to suffer from low grade, chronic disease (such as gingivostomatis) and to become chronic shedders of the virus. He also write a regular blog at www.petethevet.com. Indoor adult cats may be given booster vaccinations every three years to maintain minimal immunity. Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivo-stomatitis in cats. Currently there is no treatment to stop the virus, but pet owners can offer supportive care for their cat while its immune system fights the infection. There are nearly fifty strains of Feline Calicivirus, causing disease of variable virulence and severity. The acute form of the disease usually causes typical upper respiratory signs, which include nasal discharge and sneezing, along with conjunctivitis and ocular discharge. Pet Care Pet Health Pet Behavior & Training Breed Guide Pet Insurance Ask Dr. Debra Symptoms usually last 14-21 days, during which the virus is extremely contagious to other cats. These links are really helpful for us. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Effective vaccination against FCV is available: this is part of the routine FVRCP vaccine that’s given to kittens, with adult cats being given regular booster vaccinations at intervals appropriate to their lifestyle. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats, with widespread distribution in the feline population. Jenna Stregowski, RVT, has more than 20 years of experience working in veterinary medicine and has been writing about pet care for the last decade. There is no cure for feline calicivirus, nor is there a specific treatment. What is feline calicivirus? Affected cats often lose their sense of smell, resulting in simultaneous loss of taste, so it’s helpful to offer highly palatable foods with a strong, attractive odor, warming food in the microwave to make it more appealing. Introduction. A booster vaccination should then be given one year later, followed by further boosters every three years. Calicivirus Treatment Treatment for calicivirus in cats is generally supportive, but anti-viral therapy may also be given. It is part of a family of RNA viruses called Caliciviridae. Part of that infection includes your cat having a runny nose. 7 Coyne KP, Jones BR, Kipar A, Chantrey J, Porter CJ, Barber PJ, et al. This educational content is not veterinary advice and does not replace consultation with a qualified veterinarian. They can confirm a more specific diagnosis through eye and mouth samples that a laboratory will test. It is a member of the Caliciviridae family. It is possible for some cats to be carriers of feline calicivirus. Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivo-stomatitis in cats. While the calicivirus vaccine will not fully prevent contraction of the virus, it will help your cat fight off the infection and experience milder symptoms. Vaccination against the calicivirus is strongly advised. Feline pneumonitis (Chlamydia psittaci) and mycoplasmal Specific disinfectants (such as bleach or chlorine dioxide) should be used to clean areas that have been in contact with infected cats. While most cats recover from Calicivirus infection, it can be fatal, especially in animals with poorer immune systems, such as kittens or immunocompromised cats (e.g. Read more here. One of the causes of feline upper respiratory tract disease (cat flu). Vaccinated cats can still contract feline calicivirus, but they may experience milder symptoms. Upper respiratory issues occur fairly commonly in cats and are often caused by infectious diseases. Cats can be infected by direct cat-to-cat contact (droplets can carry the virus for a distance of up to 1.5m) and also via fomites (e.g. [1] Calicivirus usually affects the throat, eyes, nasal cavity and oral cavity in cats although sometimes the lungs, musculoskeletal system, and intestines can also be affected. Feline calicivirus is most commonly spread in multi-cat environments. In clinical use, the term stomatitis should be reserved to describe wide-spread oral inflammation (beyond gingivitis and periodontitis) that may also extend into submucosal tissues (Figure 2).3 The mucogingival (MG) line provides a landmark at which the clinician differentiates disease entities. PetAirapy’s UV technology has been designed and tested to quickly deliver high disinfection rates of feline calicivirus and other microorganisms that spread infection in animal care facilities. Treatments For Calicivirus In Cats. You should regularly disinfect the objects your cat uses with products that eliminate the virus and are not harmful to the feline. Feline Calicivirus Treatment . Severe upper respiratory infections can progress to pneumonia. Lethal outbreak of disease associated with feline calicivirus infection in cats… Pyrexia, dullness and inappetance are commonly seen. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an upper respiratory infection that may cause limping in cats. Feline Calicivirus Infection (FCV), also known as infectious rhinotracheitis, is a multiple oral and respiratory infection of felines caused by feline calicivirus. Recently, virulent systemic diseases caused by FCV infection has been associated with mortality rates up to 50%. Ulcers in and around the mouth (tongue, gums, hard palate, lips, nose), Skin lesions and ulcers (in cases of virulent systemic infection). Furthermore, there are some more virulent strains that have a mortality of over 50%, even in adult cats. Good nursing care is critical and cats may need to be hospitalised for intravenous fluid therapy and nutritional support in … Most cats with an uncomplicated calicivirus infection can be treated symptomatically at home. It's important to feed strong-smelling foods that appeal to your cat, and soft food is best if oral ulcers have developed. The virus enters a cat's body through the nose, mouth, or eyes. If your vet suspects your cat has feline calicivirus, a blood test may be recommended for confirmation. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Cats with mild to moderate upper respiratory infections may be treated with medications and sent home under your care. Colonies of feral cats can suffer serious problems from the virus. Currently, there are no direct-acting antivirals approved for the treatment of FCV infection. Careful cleaning and disinfection is important when treating infected cats to prevent accidental transmission of the virus. food bowls, water bowls, litter boxes etc). Fortunately, FCV can generally be managed successfully in both individual cats and populations through vaccines, disinfection, and isolation and supportive care for affected cats. those with FIV). In general, the primary series of vaccinations against FVRCP should be given to all kittens and cats. Feline calicivirus. These recommendations are based on an “average” cat, and it’s always worth discussing your own cat’s needs with your own veterinarian. [2] X Research source You may also notice congested breathing, which you can identify by a wheezy sound when your cat is breathing through the nose. If you bring a cat to a veterinarian with upper respiratory issues, there’s a good chance the vet offer a presumptive diagnosis that the cat has calcivirus. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Two feline calicivirus strains may produce a transient “limping syndrome” without mouth sores or pneumonia. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus with a spherical capsid that is studded with cup-shaped depressions (calici = “cup”) (Figure 23-1). Cats with upper respiratory infections often lose their appetite because they cannot taste or smell as well as usual. It can help to add 1 teaspoonful of salt to 1 pint of water. In theory, anti-viral therapy (such as interferon or immunoglobulin therapy) may be given, but in practice, this is rarely used. They may periodically experience flare-ups of symptoms. These cats typically receive intravenous fluids to support hydration and injectable medications to manage symptoms. If your vet suspects your cat has feline calicivirus, a blood test may be recommended for confirmation. Both bacteria and parasites tend to proliferate when your cat is sick. Dual infection with both feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus are relatively common. In some cases, pneumonia may develop, with coughing and difficulty breathing. Most cats can recover at home, but severely affected cats may need intensive nursing care. This highly contagious disease can easily spread throughout a population of cats, making it a major problem in animal shelter environments. An appetite stimulant may be recommended if your cat is not eating well. However, a cat can also be contagious during the incubation period (usually 2-6 days prior to symptoms). Most antivirals used in veterinary medicine only inhibit replication of DNA viruses or retroviruses, and treatment of FCV infections has not entered clinical practice. Treatment of calicivirus is generally symptomatic and aimed at supporting the cat whilst its immune system fights off the virus. The calicivirus (FCV) is a type of feline flu.It manifests as an acute respiratory disease that affects the upper tracts of the feline, causing sinusitis and rhinitis. Most cats do make a full recovery from the acute form of the disease, but even then, the virus is often not eliminated entirely from the body. Dual infection with both feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus are relatively common. Each time you make a purchase through one of our independently-chosen links, we’ll receive a percentage of the proceeds. Feline calicivirus is a common virus that usually causes upper respiratory infections in cats. Pete is well known as a media veterinarian with regular national tv, radio and newspaper slots, including a weekly column in the Daily Telegraph since 2007. They can confirm a more specific diagnosis through eye and mouth samples that a laboratory will test. As a consequence, the virus develops small variations. If your cat has a mouth ulcer, fever or if it loses her sense of smell than eating can be a problem. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats.It is one of the two important viral causes of respiratory infection in cats, the other being Felid alphaherpesvirus 1.FCV can be isolated from about 50% of cats with upper respiratory infections. Feline Calicivirus: Signs of Infection and Causes of Limping in Cats. 7 Coyne KP, Jones BR, Kipar A, Chantrey J, Porter CJ, Barber PJ, et al. Lameness and fever occur in some cases of feline calicivirus. Cats with confirmed feline calicivirus infection must be separated from the rest to prevent an epidemic. The mortality rate from feline calicivirus infection is low, but unfortunately, the disease is fatal in some individual cases. These cookies do not store any personal information. There is no specific treatment for the initial infection with FCV, but your veterinarian may prescribe antibiotics to help prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections. Use of this site is subject to our terms of use and privacy policy. Cleaning of discharges from the eyes and nostrils several times daily is important, using cotton wool moistened with warm water. Some types of calicivirus can affect humans and other animals, but feline calicivirus strains will only affect cats. It’s a common misconception that cats will never rid themselves of FCV once first infected. Lewis JR, Tsugawa AJ, Reiter AM. At present there are no specific antiviral drugs available for use in cases of feline calicivirus. Feline calicivirus is a virus that is an important cause of upper respiratory infections and oral disease in cats. This may affect the major organs and can lead to more serious issues like skin lesions and ulcers, loss of appetite, fever, and jaundice. There's a lot you need to know to make things go smoothly with your new friend. J Feline Med Surg 2011; 13(8):577-587. [1] Calicivirus usually affects the throat, eyes, nasal cavity and oral cavity in cats although sometimes the lungs, musculoskeletal system, and intestines can also be affected. J Feline Med Surg 2010; 12: 314–321. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats.It is one of the two important viral causes of respiratory infection in cats, the other being Felid alphaherpesvirus 1.FCV can be isolated from about 50% of cats with upper respiratory infections. These strains produce a short fever, leg lameness, and pain on handling of affected joints. A cat contracts feline calicivirus via direct contact with an infected cat's saliva, eye/nasal discharge, or aerosolized droplets from sneezes. Your vet will recommend a course of treatment suitable for the seriousness of the condition and your cat’s general health. Keep the nose and eyes of the cat clean and use vaporizers and saline nose drops to help clear the nasal passages. Your email address will not be published. The difficulty with the FCV is that there are many different strains of the virus. But, antibiotics are liver toxic and they also lower the immune system, so they should be used only when deemed essential. Feline calicivirus is a highly contagious viral pathogen that affects cats. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Feline Calicivirus. Current advice from the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) Panel recommends that the first dose of vaccine should be given at 9 weeks of age, a second dose at 12 weeks, and a third dose at 16 weeks of age. Nasal drops or nebulization may be necessary for cats with nasal congestion. Infected female cats can also pass the virus on to their kittens. ; VSD (virulent systemic disease); has been shown to a highly infectious disease. Often uncomplicated Calicivirus affects the cats. Cats with moderate to severe signs may require hospitalization for supportive care. Treatment of Feline Calicivirus Infection in Cats There is no specific treatment for the initial infection with FCV, but your veterinarian may prescribe antibiotics to help prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections. on Calicivirus In Cats: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment, Calicivirus In Cats: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment. Both bacteria and parasites tend to proliferate when your cat is sick. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. It is a disease highly infectious that usually affects large cat colonies, due to the ease with which the virus is transmitted. His latest book: “Pet Subjects”, was published by Aurum Press in 2017. Cheetahs are the other species of the family Felidae known to become infected naturally. Along with Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR), Feline Calicivirus (FCV) is one of the most common viral infection of cats, with one or both viruses causing the syndrome known as “cat flu”. FCV infections are frequently complicated by secondary bacterial infections, so supportive treatment with antibiotics is usually required. We discuss how it spreads, the symptoms, and treatment. The virus attacks the respiratory tract (nasal passages and lungs), the mouth (with ulceration of the tongue), the intestines and the musculoskeletal system. Treatment for FCV may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medication and decongestants, all of which can help your cat to feel better while their immune system tackles the virus. It is highly communicable in unvaccinated cats, and is commonly seen in multi-cat facilities, shelters, poorly ventilated households and breeding catteries. How is a calicivirus infection treated? Like upper respiratory infections in humans, the infection will cause most cats to exhibit symptoms such as congestion and eye problems. Instead, the focus is on supportive therapy, keeping affected cats comfortable while the cat’s own immune system deals with the virus. Feline Calici Virus Treatment. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Like FHV-1, FCV commonly causes feline URTD, accounting for 10% to over 50% of cases. It is important to differentiate gingivitis from stomatitis: gingivitis is inflammation of the gingiva (Figure 1), while stomatitis is inflammation of the mucous lining of any of the structures in the mouth. There are several strains of feline calicivirus, all of which are highly contagious. This supportive treatment may include general nursing, antibiotics to control secondary bacterial infection, phenylephrine nasal drops as a decongestant, intra-venous fluids to combat dehydration, and nutritional support. If you bring a cat to a veterinarian with upper respiratory issues, there’s a good chance the vet offer a presumptive diagnosis that the cat has calcivirus. Feline calicivirus is extremely common in shelters, causing a range of effects from subclinical or mild disease to Virulent Systemic Feline Calicivirus (VSFCV). The feline calicivirus (FCV) is one of several viruses that can cause upper respiratory infections in cats. The virus can be difficult to kill in the environment too, surviving for up to a month on surfaces. It is often impossible to distinguish feline viral rhinotracheitis from feline calicivirus infection. Treatment should always be under the instruction of a professional veterinarian. allaboutcats.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. Many cats develop distinctive ulcerations on the tongue, gums, hard palate (roof of mouth) and lips. Mainly manifested as upper respiratory tract symptoms, biphasic fever, serous and mucus rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis, mental depression, some cats can hear the rattle of breath, difficulty in eating, salivation, oral ulcers, etc. Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent to treat secondary infections. We discuss how it spreads, the symptoms, and treatment. Your veterinarian may prescribe an eye medication to be applied topically if your cat has a purulent (green/yellow) eye discharge. However, the virus can affect other systems in the body. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Oral ulcers can make eating very uncomfortable for some cats. The disease can be prevented by vaccinations which should be given to all kittens, and to adult cats as needed depending on their individual risk. How is feline calicivirus treated? Comparative efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon omega in refractory cases of calicivirus-positive cats with caudal stomatitis: A randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study in 39 cats. pet health. For diagnosis, pay attention to symptoms in your cat, and if you suspect that your cat has been affected, take it to the vet for diagnosis. Your vet may prescribe nasal decongestants, eye medications, and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, because there are multiple different strains of feline calicivirus, not all are covered in the vaccine. Breathing treatments may be necessary if the cat develops pneumonia. Required fields are marked *. Cats with calicivirus most commonly develop signs of upper respiratory infection, including discharge from the eyes and/or nose, sneezing, and coughing. Pet Care Pet Health Pet Behavior & Training Breed Guide Pet Insurance Ask Dr. Debra. Feline Calicivirus is a common viral infection that affects the respiratory tract, mouth, intestines and musculoskeletal system of cats. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Cats that go outside, mingling with other cats, or cats that go to boarding catteries or shows, may be given an annual booster vaccination, but this is a topic for discussion with your own vet. View all posts by Dr. Pete Wedderburn, DVM, Tapeworms In Cats: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment​, Cat Grass: What it Is, How to Grow it, and More. However, treatment is supportive and specific to the cat's signs. Feline calicivirus is a virus with an infectious strain which can easily mutate. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an upper respiratory infection that may cause limping in cats. Thanks, Your email address will not be published. However, treatment is supportive and specific to the cat's signs. Feline Calicivirus Infection can be detected by PCR in samples of oral and ocular swabs. Or aerosolized droplets from sneezes population of cats, making it a major problem in animal shelter environments inflammation! Boxes etc ) some cases, supportive care hospitalization for supportive care all! 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