Music education is provided by Kent Music (formerly Kent Music School),[74] which has its origins in the 1940s. Kent was also the location of the largest number of art schools in the country during the nineteenth century, estimated by the art historian David Haste, to approach two hundred. In pre-industrial times, almost every village and town had its own windmill or watermill, with over 400 windmills known to have stood at some time. For almost nine centuries a small part of present-day East London (the North Woolwich, London E16 area), formed part of Kent. The average hours worked per week by residents of Kent were 43.1 for males and 30.9 for females. Kent was one of the first British territories to be settled by Germanic tribes, most notably the Jutes, following the withdrawal of the Romans. Our Anglo-Saxon ancestors were essentially farmers, city life having little attraction for them; and there on their farm-lands, or behind the fences of their homes, they developed that independence and that power to mind their own business, which is one of the strongest characteristics of our race. The ridges and valleys formed when the exposed clay eroded faster than the exposed chalk, greensand, or sandstone. Twenty-eight survive within the county today, plus two replica mills and a further two in that part of Kent now absorbed into London. The Channel Tunnel was completed in 1994 and High Speed 1 in November 2007 with a London terminus at St Pancras. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles. Name definition, a word or a combination of words by which a person, place, or thing, a body or class, or any object of thought is designated, called, or known. In 1889 the County of London was created and took over responsibility for local administration of parts of north-west Kent. Dartford currently play in National League South, the sixth tier of the English football pyramid. Rochester Cathedral is England's second-oldest cathedral, the present building built in the Early English Style. Tewesley, in Surrey, means Tew`s ley or pasture-land, Tew being the god of war whose name has come down into modern language in the form of the Deuce. Built-in 1824, it was purchased in 1846 by the railways, which partially backfilled it. The old word mere, “marsh,” as in Ellesmere (Ella`s Mere) often occurs; and the many inhabited islands in the fens, rivers, or sea, retain the Anglo-Saxon word ig, meaning isle, in such forms as ey, ea, ay, or e, as in the cases of Selsey, Swansea, Rothsay, and Eton. Kent's geographical location between the Straits of Dover and London has influenced its architecture, as has its Cretaceous geology and its good farming land and fine building clays. Others contend that the men of west Kent are Men of Kent while those of East Kent are only Kentish Men. The two companies merged in 1899, forming the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SECR), further amalgamated with other railways by the Railways Act 1921 to form the Southern Railway. The county town is Maidstone. Another word for name. So, also, names like Swinton represent the tun, or “enclosure,” for the swine belonging to somebody`s farm; and names such as Shepton mean the sheep-enclosure, as do those ending in –fold. Kent County Council's headquarters are in Maidstone,[38] while Medway's offices are at Gun Wharf, Chatham. Located between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates England from mainland Europe, Kent has been the setting for both conflict and diplomacy, including the Battle of Britain in World War II and the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004. [4][5], The area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. [39] All but one of Kent's district councils are controlled by the Conservatives: a minority Labour administration took control of Thanet District in December 2011 after a Conservative councillor defected to the Independent group. The word croft, meaning an enclosed field or small farm, is often used though perhaps not in the earliest times; and the word barton or burton, derived from bere, “barley,” and tun, “enclosure,” and meaning the rickyard or granary of a private estate, is common; while the word staple or stable, as in Stapleford and Whitstable means the storehouse of a property. West Kent Community Radio (WKCR) serving Tonbridge, Tunbridge Wells and Sevenoaks. The word low, as in Hounslow and Ludlow, is the Anglo-Saxon hlaw, meaning a rise or low hill. Kent has the highest number of National Challenge schools in England: schools which are branded 'failing' based on the British Government's floor targets that 30% of pupils achieve at least 5 GCSE grades A* to C.[75] Of the 63 secondary modern schools, 33 missed this target; thus 52% of Kent secondary modern schools (34% out of all 96 maintained secondary schools) are 'failing'.[76]. Kent has two county-wide stations – BBC Radio Kent, based in Tunbridge Wells; and the commercial station KMFM, owned by the KM Group. Here it turns north and breaks through the North Downs at Rochester, then joins the estuary of the River Thames near Sheerness. [37] Together they have around 300 town and parish councils. The termination –side, as in Ambleside, sometimes written –set, means again a homestead, a place where somebody has settled. By far Britain’s largest metropolis, it is also the country’s economic, transportation, and cultural center. There are also Great Tew and Dunstew in Oxfordshire. There were also other workings around Burham on the tidal Medway. Canterbury Cathedral is the United Kingdom's metropolitan cathedral; it was founded in AD 598 and displays architecture from all periods. SER's major London termini were London Bridge, Charing Cross, and Cannon Street. Plans for another unitary authority in north-west Kent were dropped, but in 2016 consultations began between five Kent local authorities (Canterbury, Thanet, Dover, Folkestone & Hythe, and Ashford) with a view to forming a new unitary authority for East Kent, outside the auspices of Kent County Council. [44] Chalk, gravel and clay were excavated on Dartford Heath for centuries. [42], North Kent is heavily industrialised with cement-making at Northfleet and Cuxton, brickmaking at Sittingbourne, shipbuilding on the Medway and Swale, engineering and aircraft design and construction at Rochester, chemicals at Dartford and papermaking at Swanley, and oil refining at Grain. The station was closed and merged with several other Heart stations in the south of England in 2019 to form Heart South, with the Kent studios in Whitstable closing and production moving to Fareham in Hampshire. Kent's two canals are the Royal Military Canal between Hythe and Rye, which still exists, and the Thames and Medway Canal between Strood and Gravesend. The word sal or sale, as in Monsal or Sale means a nobleman`s house. Maidstone United was a Football League side from 1989 until going bankrupt in 1992. ], the first and so far only one in the UK. Other names are derived from words denoting natural features such as hills, valleys, and so forth, where settlements of one or more houses may have sprung up. Manston Airport, located near the village of Manston in the Thanet district, was a former RAF facility that also handled some civilian flights. By the 1850s, SER's networks had expanded to Ashford, Ramsgate, Canterbury, Tunbridge Wells, and the Medway towns. [60] Following financial difficulties, Connex lost the franchise and was replaced by South Eastern Trains and after Southeastern.[61]. Haw, as in Hawes in Yorkshire, means an enclosed house; and hale, hall, and all, as in Halesowen, Eccleshall, and Walsall, mean either a house or building or an enclosed meadow. [28] Dartford, Gravesend, the Medway towns, Sittingbourne, Faversham, Canterbury, Deal, and Dover are built on chalk. When did the West fall away from Holy Orthodoxy? Canterbury Hockey Club and Holcombe Hockey Club both play in the top division in both the men's and women's England Hockey Leagues. [5], Following the withdrawal of the Romans, large numbers of Germanic speakers from the continent settled in Kent, bringing their language, Old English. All the major rivers in the county were used to power watermills. ), and this means “home” in its exclusive family sense. [11] The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. The old word for forest has come down to us in forms such as weald, wald, and wold, as in the Cotswolds; and thus Waltham means “the home in the forest,” and Walden “the valley in the forest.” The Anglo-Saxon treo, a “tree,” occurs in place-names such as Manningtree, and Oswestry (Oswald`s Tree). This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 02:21. Easterleake in Nottinghamshire, preserves the name of Eostre, the goddess of Spring, whose festival has given its name to our Easter; and there is a place called Good Easter in Essex. County-wide papers include the Kent Messenger, Kent on Saturday, Kent on Sunday, and the Kent and Sussex Courier. [27][28] The easterly section of the Wealden dome has been eroded away by the sea, and cliffs such as the White Cliffs of Dover are present where a chalk ridge known as the North Downs meets the coast. The traditional border of East and West Kent was the county's main river, the Medway. The River Medway is tidal up to Allington and navigable up to Tonbridge. Kent is one of the warmest parts of Britain. But it's not about naturism, it's about shagging. The M26 motorway, built-in 1980, provides a short link between the M25 at Sevenoaks and the M20 near Wrotham. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men (or Maids) of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. Rio's in Kentish Town dubs itself "London's Leading Naturist Health Spa." The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. [49] These two dioceses ensured that every village had a parish church. [13], Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, and into lathes and hundreds. Kent currently has more motorways by distance than any other county in the UK, with sections of the M2, M20, M25 and M26 totalling 173 km (107 mi) within the extents of the ceremonial county. At this time, before the invention of photography, draughtsmen were used to draw maps and topographical representations of the fields of battle, and after the wars ended many of these settled permanently in the county in which they had been based. At the 2013 county council elections, control of Kent County Council was held by the Conservatives, who won 44 of the council's 83 seats. Almost all these changes took place between 1st January 1936 and 1st July 1939 but a few were made at other times during 1929-45 The symbol # indicates that the old name has been abolished and the street incorporated into an existing place name. The Medway is some 112 kilometres (70 mi) long. Blackheath FC, a club within the historic boundaries of the county, play in third-tier National League 1. In October 2015 UKIP lost overall control following a series of resignations, although remaining the largest party, only for UKIP to regain control once more following ward elections in August 2016. It borders the Thames Estuary and the North Sea to the north, and the Straits of Dover and the English Channel to the south. Then again a great many place-names are derived from words descriptive of the situation of the homestead, and this, too, rather indicates that the farm or estate stood by itself in country surroundings and was not a large settlement. The East Kent coast inspired many of his works, including some of his most famous seascapes. [51] With the motorways in the late twentieth century came the M2 motorway bridge spanning the Medway and the Dartford tunnel and the Dartford Bridge spanning the Thames. The county's first commercial station was originally known as Invicta FM and began broadcasting in 1984. The meaning has been explained as 'coastal district,' 'corner-land' or 'land on the edge' (compare Welsh cant 'bordering of a circle, tire, edge,' Breton cant 'circle'). There are three heritage, standard gauge railways; Spa Valley Railway near Tunbridge Wells on the old Tunbridge Wells West branch, East Kent Railway on the old East Kent coalfield area and the Kent and East Sussex Railway on the Weald around Tenterden. The father of novelist Charles Dickens worked at the Chatham Dockyard; in many of his books, the celebrated novelist featured the scenery of Chatham, Rochester, and the Cliffe marshes. [55] Kent has also been the home to artists including Frank Auerbach, Tracey Emin and Stass Paraskos. It ceased to be considered part of the county in 1965[disputed (for: contradicting related articles)  – discuss] upon creation of the London Borough of Newham. The walled cities or fortresses of Roman-British times were given the name caster, cester, caister or chester, as in Lancaster, Cirencester, Caister, Chester and Manchester; and in many such cases the old Roman-British name was retained, indicating that in such cities the original population still continued to live. These roads are now approximately the A2, B2068, A257, and the A28. Thus Glev(um) became Glou-cester, Venta became Win-chester, Man(ucium) became Man-chester, and so forth. The railways were privatised in 1996 and most Kent passenger services were franchised to Connex South Eastern. Wich or wych, as in Droitwich, means a salt-spring, or some sort of cleft in the hills; but there are also the wich or wick derived from wic, the word for a settlement, as in Greenwich and Warwick, and the Danish wick derived from wik, a creek. Charter flights are provided by Lydd Airport at Lydd. 17 seats were won by the United Kingdom Independence Party, 13 by the Labour Party, 7 by the Liberal Democrats, 1 by the Green Party and 1 by the Swanscombe and Greenhithe Residents Association. Teams have represented the county since the early 18th century. [7] The extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by an Iron Age tribe known as the Regnenses. Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives; it has been opposed by environmental groups.[35]. Hel, goddess of the underworld, is still remembered in Hellifield and other place-names in Yorkshire. KMFM previously consisted of seven local stations which covered different areas of the county (and are still technically seven different licences) but have shared all programming since 2012[78]. Names of places on the Roman roads sometimes, too, include the word straet, “street” or “road,” in its forms strat, straet, etc., as in the case of Stratford and Streatham. Blean near Canterbury was home to Smallfilms, the production company founded by Oliver Postgate and Peter Firmin and responsible for children's TV favourites Noggin the Nog, Ivor the Engine and Bagpuss. Cement-making, papermaking, and coal-mining were important industries in Kent during the 19th and 20th centuries. Kent County Council has the largest education department of any local council in Britain,[71] Forts were built all along the coast following the raid on the Medway, a successful attack by the Dutch navy on the shipyards of the Medway towns in 1667.[19]. The eth in Lambeth means a haven, and we have it also in its form hithe or hythe, as in Rotherhithe and Hythe. Sometimes when an Anglo-Saxon house was built in or near the ruins of some Roman or British stone structure, or beside a stone-paved Roman road, the word stan was used, meaning “stone”; and this comes down to us in such forms as stan, stam, stain, or stone. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, and houses for officials had been built downstream from Chatham. Those parts of Kent closest to London such as Swanley, Westerham, Dartford, Gravesend, and Sevenoaks lie within the ITV London and BBC London areas, taking their television signals from the Crystal Palace transmitter. Kent is sometimes known as the "Garden of England" for its abundance of orchards and hop gardens. When the theatre of operation moved to the Atlantic, this role was assumed by Portsmouth and Plymouth, with Chatham concentrating on shipbuilding and ship repair. [59] The exact year is shown in the eBook version. This article is about the county in England. [52] During the late 1930s, Nobel Prize-awarded novelist William Golding worked as a teacher at Maidstone Grammar School, where he met his future wife Ann Brookfield. A powerful relay transmitter at Tunbridge Wells serves the town and surrounding area. Sevenoaks Hockey Club's women first XI plays in the second tier of national competition. The name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin. [63] This plan was dropped in 2003 following protests by cultural and environmental groups. The west of the county (including Tunbridge Wells, Tonbridge, and Sevenoaks) has less than 50% of the average claimant count for low incomes or worklessness as the coastal districts of Dover, Folkestone and Hythe, and Thanet (chiefly three resorts: Ramsgate, Broadstairs, and Margate). The majority of Anglo-Saxon place-names contain some word meaning a fenced or fortified enclosure; and yet so thorough was the conquest of the British that the erection of such defences can hardly be attributed to fear of attack. [32] It was centred in the Sandwich area of east Kent at about ten miles below the surface. [8] Of the migrating tribes, the Jutes were the most prominent, and the area became a Jutish kingdom[9] recorded as Cantia in about 730 and Cent in 835. Much of Kent is served by the BBC's South East region, which is based in Tunbridge Wells and provides local news for the county and East Sussex. [53] William Caxton, who first introduced the printing press to England, was born in Kent; the recent invention was key in helping many Kent dialect words and spellings to become standard in English. Rebecca also answers to Rebecca A Kurty, Rebecca A Sawyer, Rececca A Sawyer and Rebecca A Kendall, and perhaps a couple of other names. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. [77] The Kent Women cricket team has won the Women's County Championship seven times since it was established in 1997. The word worth, meaning a defined possession or estate, is found in many place-names such as Tamworth and Kenilworth; and the termination worthy, the Anglo-Saxon weorthig, means a protected or “warded” place. Farm Names: 600+ Best, Catchy and Funny Farm Names January 8, 2021 September 16, 2020 by Editor The naming of the farm is an important part of establishing a new farm. Deal Castle, Walmer Castle, Sandown Castle (whose remains were eroded by the sea in the 1990s) were constructed in late mediaeval times, and HM Dockyard, at Chatham and its surrounding castles and forts—Upnor Castle, Great Lines, and Fort Amherst—more recently. In 1900, however, Kent absorbed the district of Penge. The Kent Cricket League is the top level of club competition within Kent and features teams from throughout the county, including areas such as Beckenham and Bexley which were formerly part of the county. It closed in 2014.[68]. [2] Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, the oldest cathedral in England, has been the seat of the Archbishops of Canterbury since the conversion of England to Christianity that began in the 6th century with Saint Augustine. The coastline of Kent is continuously changing, due to tectonic uplift and coastal erosion. 51.1% of Kent's population excluding Medway was female — as to Medway, this proportion was 50.4%. Shoreline FM (Romney Marsh) broadcasting since January 2020 on 101.1FM. At the 2019 general election, she increased her majority from 187 to 1836. In Latin sources the area is called Cantia or Canticum, while the Anglo-Saxons referred to it as Cent, Cent lond or Centrice. Gangs such as The Aldington Gang brought spirits, tobacco and salt to the county, and transported goods such as wool across the sea to France.[21]. These words indicate in each case the existence originally of but a single family`s house or homestead, farm or estate; and the same implication is to be seen in the number of places called after a single individual, as Escombe (Eda`s Combe), or Evesham (Eofa`s Home), or after a single family, as in the numberless names containing the word –ing. Nearer to London, market gardens also flourish. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. In addition, there is the 15-inch (380 mm) gauge, Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway on the southeast Kent coast along the Dungeness peninsula. Learn more about London. Canterbury's religious role gave rise to Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, a key development in the English language. But when Christianity came and churches were erected, the villages growing up around the sacred buildings were called by names based on such words as Kirk (the old circe), or minster or ecclesia (as in Eccles); and the dwelling of the preost, or priest, gave its name to places such as Preston. The Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. Find more ways to say name, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley. The termination –ham is also of extremely frequent occurance (Clapham, Balham, etc. Kent has provided inspiration for several notable writers and artists. Some say that a Man of Kent is a term of high honour while a Kentish Man denotes but an ordinary person. The great god Woden is remembered in Wednesbury in Staffordshire, Woodnesborough in Kent and Wiltshire, and in other names derived from Woden`s beorh, or hill. It was due rather to this exclusiveness, and to a strong sense of possession, a desire to call a piece of land his own and to regard it as his home, shared by nobody but his own family and his depandents. France can be seen clearly in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. [41], However, in recent years, there has been a significant drop in agriculture, and industry and services are increasing their utilisation of the area. When the Anglo-Saxon invaders began widely to settle in Britain in the Fifth to Seventh Centuries they generally displayed that same tendency towards domestic exclusiveness, privacy, and independence which has remained a national characteristic ever since, and which is now exemplified in the saying that an Englishman`s home is his castle. Cement came to the fore in the 19th century when massive building projects were undertaken. Sevenoaks, Maidstone, Ashford, and Folkestone are built on greensand,[27] while Tonbridge and Tunbridge Wells are built on sandstone. Miskin Radio (Dartford and Gravesend): online only. There are nine Anglo-Saxon churches in Kent. The county's largest theatre is the Marlowe Theatre in the centre of Canterbury. Summary: Rebecca Sawyer is 47 years old and was born on 12/25/1973. [5] The divide has been explained by some as originating in the Anglo-Saxon migrations, with Jutes mainly settling east of the Medway and Saxons settling west of it. The # symbol indicates that it does not appear in later editions of the LCC books ( see Notes below ). There was no open-field system, and the large tracts were owned by the two great abbeys, Christ Church, Canterbury and St Augustine's Abbey, that did not pass into the hands of the king during the Reformation. The Anglo-Saxon geat, meaning a “way,” is also found in the form of gate in the case of settlements on a highway, as for example Reigate which really means the Ridge Way. Spanning Dover and Westerham is the Kent Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The landscape painter J. M. W. Turner spent part of his childhood in the town of Margate in East Kent, and regularly returned to visit it throughout his life. Some of the place-names ending in well are of the Anglo-Saxon period, derived from wella, a “well”; but the use of the word burn or bourne, meaning “a stream,” is not usually as early. [29], The Wealden dome is a Mesozoic structure lying on a Palaeozoic foundation, which can often create the right conditions for coal formation. At the 2011 census,[36] Kent, including Medway, had 1,727,665 residents (18.0% of which in Medway); had 711,847 households (17.5% of which in Medway) and had 743,436 dwellings (14.8% of which in Medway). In the late 19th century huge modern mills were built at Dartford and Northfleet on the River Thames and at Kemsley on The Swale. The 2007 earthquake caused physical damage in Folkestone. [22] In the 1960s, two motorways were built; the M2 from Medway to Faversham, and the M20 from Swanley to Folkestone. In addition to the "main line" railways, there are several light, heritage, and industrial railways in Kent. Kent Music provides services across the county including Kent County Youth Orchestra, Kent Youth Choirs, and an annual summer school at Benenden School. To be of British Celtic origin the county 's first Episcopal see first! 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