He notes the explosion happened at 5 am, and states that around 200 on board were trapped and drowned as the ship's captain closed the watertight bulkhead doors to control flooding and stop the ship from sinking. A small replica of the ship plastered with newsprint was the facsimile representation in the ceremony. [24], On 16 February 1945, Monte Rosa was damaged by a mine explosion near the Hel Peninsula in the Baltic, With a flooded engine room, the ship was towed to the German-occupied Polish port of Gdynia for temporary repairs. In June 1948, a ship docked at Tilbury, Essex, and changed the United Kingdom forever. The ship was far from full, and so an opportunistic advertisement was placed in a Jamaican newspaper offering cheap transport on the ship for anybody who wanted to come and work in the UK. At that time, there were no immigration restrictions for citizens of one part of the British Empire moving to another part. The people who became known as the Windrush generation were invited to Britain to lay roads, drive buses, clean hospitals and nurse the sick, helping to … [56][57] A Royal Air Force Avro Shackleton from 224 Squadron assisted in the rescue. Within a decade later, nearly 125,000, had made a similar journey across the Atlantic to the UK. [30][39] She was discovered seven days out of Kingston. At about midday, Saintes began to tow the ship to Gibraltar, at a speed of around 3.5 knots (6.5 km/h), but Empire Windrush sank in the early hours of the following morning, Tuesday, 30 March 1954,[9] after having been towed a distance of only around 16 kilometres (8.6 nmi). [3], This proved to be a great success. [51], Empire Windrush set off from Yokohama, Japan, in February 1954 on what proved to be her final voyage. Even before the Windrush had left Jamaica, the prime minister, Clement Attlee, had examined the possibility of preventing its embarkation or diverting the ship and the migrants on … For example, in Jamaica the 'Daily Gleaner' newspaper advertised 300 places. After the devastating effects of war,Britain was looking to rebuild its workforce, and offered work permits tocolonies (and allies) in hopes of rebuilding the economy. They were invited by Britain to assist with post-war reconstruction. The wreck lies at a depth of around 2,600 m (8,500 ft). Two ships were sunk in Kiel harbour by separate wartime air-raids, Monte Sarmiento in February 1942 and Monte Olivia in April 1945. The British troopship HMT Empire Windrush anchored at Tilbury Docks, Essex, on 21 June 1948 carrying hundreds of passengers from the Caribbean hoping for a new life in Britain - … The arrival of EmpireWindrush at Tilbury Dock in 1948, carryingformer servicemen and others interested in work opportunities,marked the beginnings of significantmigration of Caribbean commonwealth citizens. The majority of travellers were soon on their way by train to prearranged addresses and contacts. PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES PHOTO: GETTY IMAGES On a cloudy Tuesday in June, 72 years ago, the HMT Empire Windrush (originally the MV Monte Rosa passenger liner and cruise ship) completed its 8,000 mile crossing from the Caribbean to finally dock at Tilbury in Essex. Among the passengers was Sam Beaver King, who went on to help found the Notting Hill Carnival and who became the first black Mayor of Southwark. Bass Culture 70/50 – a new, four-week exhibition – explores this impact, specifically the ways Jamaican music has helped shape the UK. [43], In February 1950, the ship was used to transport the last British troops stationed in Greece back to the United Kingdom,[44] embarking the First Battalion of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment at Thessaloniki on 5 February, and further troops and their families at Piraeus. For others with nowhere to stay, accommodation was found in the Clapham Deep Shelter, a part of the Northern Tube line that had been used as an air-raid shelter. Around 26 hours after Empire Windrush had been abandoned, she was reached by HMS Saintes of the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet 100km northwest of Algiers. [9], Monte Rosa was launched on 13 December 1930[10] and was delivered in early 1931 to Hamburg Süd. [3], Monte Rosa was 500 ft 6 in (152.55 m) long, with a beam of 65 ft 8 in (20.02 m). [9] However, they were quickly picked up by Windrush's lifeboats and also by a boat from the first rescue ship, which reached the scene at 7.00 am. Empire Windrush On this day in History, June 22, 1948, a German cruise boat, the Empire Windrush, traveled up the Thames to the Tilbury Dock, London, where she disembarked 492 settlers from Kingston, Jamaica. Empire Windrush One misty morning in June 1948 a former German cruise boat, the Empire Windrush, steamed up the Thames to the Tilbury Dock, London, where she disembarked some 500 hopeful settlers from Kingston, Jamaica: 492 was the official figure, but there were several stowaways as well. Photograph: Hulton Getty. [citation needed]. Although the passengers were placed in the lifeboats, they were not launched and the ship was subsequently towed back to Gibraltar. The ship was then towed to Copenhagen, carrying 5,000 German refugees who were fleeing from the advancing Red Army. [29], The ship docked at the Port of Tilbury, near London, on 21 June 1948,[30][31] and the 1,027 passengers began disembarking the next day. Seventy years ago today—June 22, 1948—a passenger ship carrying 492 Jamaican immigrants arrived in Essex, London. WHEN the passenger liner HMT Empire Windrush docked at Port of Tilbury on the River Thames in June 1948 with hundreds of Caribbean immigrants aboard, it was a key moment in the establishment of multicultural Britain. [57], In 1954, several of the military personnel on board Empire Windrush during her final voyage received decorations for their role in the evacuation of the burning ship. About a dozen Empire Ships were named after British rivers; the River Windrush is a small tributary of the Thames, that flows through the Cotswolds towards Oxford. [26][11], Monte Rosa was renamed HMT Empire Windrush on 21 January 1947, for use on the Southampton–Gibraltar–Suez–Aden–Colombo–Singapore–Hong Kong route, with voyages extended to Kure in Japan after the start of the Korean War. Oswald “Columbus” Denniston, who was the first of the Windrush passengers to get a job according to the Daily Express at the time, told the BBC in 1998 that the atmosphere on the ship was “jolly”. Which world leader is currently residing at 24 Sussex Drive? [32][33][34] However, the ship's records, kept in the United Kingdom National Archives, indicate conclusively that 802 passengers gave their last place of residence as a country in the Caribbean. In 1942, she was one of several ships used for the deportation of Norwegian Jewish people,[15] carrying a total of 46 people from Norway to Denmark, including the Polish-Norwegian businessman and humanitarian Moritz Rabinowitz. The ship was also used to spread Nazi ideology among the German-speaking community in South America. Oswald “Columbus” Denniston, who was the first of the Windrush passengers to get a job according to the Daily Express at the time, told the BBC in 1998 that the atmosphere on the ship was “jolly”. After it docked, they paddled out to her from their hiding place on an inflatable rubber boat and attached their mines. [18] The attacking force consisted of nine aircraft from Royal Air Force (RAF) 144 Squadron, five of which carried torpedoes; and nine aircraft from Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) 404 Squadron, all armed with armour-piercing RP-3 rockets. The event prompted debates in Parliament about the immigrants being allowed to settle in the country, and the ship's arrival marked an important moment in modern British history. 22 June 2018 marked the 70th anniversary of the arrival of the ship Empire Windrush at Tilbury Dock, Essex, the beginning of a new chapter in the story of London. In this year as we fight the COVID-19 epidemic, we remember that the Windrush arrived in the same year that the NHS was born and that throughout its history migrant workers have played a massive contribution to our health service. [9], Many of the crew and troops on board abandoned the ship by climbing down ladders or ropes and jumping into the sea. They could pay the fine or have 7 days in prison for the first offence and 10 days for the second offence, the sentences to run concurrently. Flag states still use national systems, which also cover those vessels not subject to the IMO regulations. [26] Monte Pascoal was damaged by an air-raid on Wilhelmshaven in February 1944. 1948 marked a change, as passenger berths to England were advertised. The Windrush 70th Anniversary celebrates the pioneering, Windrush generation that came to Britain. In his 2008 memoirs, he wrote that as well as German troops, the vessel was carrying Norwegian women with young children, who were being taken to Germany as part of the Lebensborn programme. [59], An inquiry into the sinking of Empire Windrush was held in London between the 21 June and 7 July 1954. Wed 5 Apr 2017 00.00 EDT. During World War II she was operated by the German navy as a troopship. Believe it or not, very few of the migrants intended to stay in Britain for more than a few years. [8][Note 1] Although some official documents, such as the enquiry report into the ship's loss, did not use HMT and continued to use the MV prefix, referring to the ship as MV Empire Windrush. Within a month, nearly all had found jobs and accommodation. The SS Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury docks on 22 June 1948 carrying passengers from the Caribbean. The smoke surrendered, and the cold refreshing breeze went through me like a ghost, as I sat on the deck staring at the sea. This ship, which they renamed the ‘Empire Windrush’ sailed into Tilbury docks, Essex carrying 492 passengers. [citation needed], The ship was renamed in British Service. The ship had made an 8,000 mile journey from the Caribbean to London with 492 passengers on board from … [citation needed], In 1948, Empire Windrush, which was en route from Australia to Britain via the Atlantic, docked in Kingston, Jamaica, to pick up servicemen who were on leave. [1], Of the other passengers, 119 were from Britain and 40 from other parts of the world. Grays Park and Beach in Victorian and Edwardian times, Tilbury passenger landing stage opening ceremony, Tilbury Riverside station and landing stage. [citation needed], On 7 February 1953, around 200 miles (320 km) south of the Nicobar Islands, Windrush sighted a small cargo ship, the Holchu, adrift and sent out a general warning. for 'Motor Vessel’. Nancy Cunard, heiress to the Cunard shipping fortune, who was on her way back from Trinidad, "took a fancy to her" and "intended looking after her". In 1948, Empire Windrush, which was en route from Australia to England via the Atlantic, docked in Kingston, Jamaica, to pick up servicemen who were on leave. Empire Windrush On this day in History, June 22, 1948, a German cruise boat, the Empire Windrush, traveled up the Thames to the Tilbury Dock, London, where she disembarked 492 settlers from Kingston, Jamaica. [53] On board were 222 crew and 1,276 passengers, including military personnel and some women and children, dependents of some of the military personnel. Empire Windrush, under the name MV Monte Rosa, was the last of five almost identical Photograph: Hulton Getty. However, she struck an uncharted rock and sank after only two years in service. Those born in the West Indies who settled in the UK in this migration movement over the following years are now typically referred to as the "Windrush Generation". The floating river Landing Stage was opened in 1930 by Prime Minister Ramsey McDonald, expanding the passenger line services at Tilbury, allowing berths of liners at all states of the tide. Monte-class passenger ships (in German) that were built by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg between 1924 and 1931 for Hamburg Süd (Hamburg South American Steam Shipping Company). Each country developed its own official numbering system, some on a national and some on a port-by-port basis, and the formats have sometimes changed over time. This day in March 1954. Believe it or not, very few of the migrants intended to stay in Britain for more than a few years. She was captured by the British at the end of the war and renamed the Empire Windrush. The ship was assessed at 13,882 GRT, 7,788 NRT. [41] The fire was still burning fiercely more than a day after it started, but a party from Saintes managed to get on board and attach a tow cable. She was the Empire Windrush, a ship that was originally part of Nazi Germany’s fleet before being captured and repurposed by the British. [61], In 1998, an area of public open space in Brixton, London, was renamed Windrush Square to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the arrival of Empire Windrush's West Indian passengers. This ship, which they renamed the ‘Empire Windrush’ sailed into Tilbury docks, Essex carrying 492 passengers. The name is a reference to one particular ship, MV Empire Windrush, which transported almost 500 passengers to the UK’s shores with … The Empire Windrush’s voyage from the Caribbean to Tilbury took place in 1948. [citation needed], The attack took place close to the Norwegian island of Utsira. It was not until 1933 that this picked up again, when the older ships, Monte Sarmiento and Monte Olivia reverted to their original role of carrying immigrants to South America while Monte Pascoal and Monte Rosa were used for cruises, to Norway and the United Kingdom,[3] Monte Rosa also continued to carry immigrants to South America, making more than 20 return-trips before the outbreak of World War 2. The SS Empire Windrush arrived at Tilbury docks on 22 June 1948 carrying passengers from the Caribbean. These voyagers -- many of them from Jamaica -- … [32] The name Windrush as a result come to be used as shorthand for West Indian migration, and by extension for the beginning of modern British multiracial society. [63], In 2020, a fund-raising effort was begun for a project to recover one of the ship's anchors as a monument to the people of the Windrush generation. On 22 June, they started to disembark at Tilbury Docks and begin their new lives in Britain. But by providing modestly priced cruises, Hamburg Süd was able to profitably cater to a large new clientele. The ship became iconic and closely associated with ‘coloured immigration’ which was the label given by both Labour and Conservative Governments. This day in 1954 – The Empire Windrush The Empire Windrush. With fire spreading rapidly, the order was given to drop the remaining boats into the sea. The 492 passengers were temporarily housed near Brixton in … They first arrived aboard the Empire Windrush in June 1948, landing at Tilbury Docks, about 20 miles from London. It was a big troop boat Empire Windrush and you have lots of soldiers, and lots of people coming to England, and the reason why it took such a long time, was something happened to one of the engines. A commonly given figure for the number of West Indian immigrants on board is 492,[2][31] based understandably on news reports in the media at the time, which variously announced that "more than 400", "430" or "500" Jamaican men had arrived in Britain. [14], At the start of World War II, Monte Rosa was allocated for military use. She had a depth of 37 ft 9 in (11.51 m). It is believed the SS Santa Rosa was used during the war as a troopship and was captured at the end of the war, becoming a bounty ship. The event prompted debates in Parliament about the immigrants being allowed to settle in the country, and the ship's arrival marked an important moment in modern British history. Migration status was not a significantiss… On display at Ambika P3 gallery in London, the show marks 70 years since the arrival of Empire Windrush at Tilbury Dock, Essex, and 50 years since the advent of British reggae. Many of the company's operating in Thurrock are multi-national one's like Procter and Gamble. The Windrush generation refers to the half a million people who came to the UK from the Caribbean between 1948 and 1971. The Windrush 70th Anniversary celebrates the pioneering, Windrush generation that came to Britain. [5], The Monte-Class ships were named after mountains in Europe or South America. Report of the British Consul in Algiers for the, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 17:32. The first two to be launched Monte Sarmiento and Monte Olivia were in fact the first large diesel-powered passenger ships to see service with a German operator. [64][65], Windrush carried four, oil-burning, four-stroke single-acting MAN diesel engines of 6,880 horsepower (5,130 kW) total. In 1946, Monte Rosa was assigned to the British Ministry of Transport and converted into a troopship. Holchu was later boarded by the crew of a British cargo ship, the Ranee, alerted by Windrush's warning. The local reporters observed the fashion of the men with 'dazzling tie designs' and another member of the crew remembers that while on board, many made up some pretty nifty trousers in 'Zoot suit style'. [1], The disembarkation of Empire Windrush's passengers was a notable news event, and was covered by newspaper reporters and by Pathé News newsreel cameras. The ex-troopship 'Empire Windrush' arriving at Tilbury Docks from Jamaica, with 482 Jamaicans on board, emigrating to Britain. The migrants apparently had a wide range of skills – they included painters, carpenters, boxers, farmers, musicians, and a dance band. The order was given to wake the passengers and crew and assemble them at their emergency stations, but the ship's public address system was not working, nor were its air and steam whistles, so the order had to be transmitted by word of mouth. A whip-round was organised on board ship, raising £50 – enough for the fare and £4 pocket money for her. The first two ships (MV Monte Sarmiento and MV Monte Olivia) were built for that purpose with single-class passenger accommodation of 1,150 in cabins and 1,350 in dormitories. She was used as a barracks ship at Stettin, then as a troopship for the invasion of Norway in April 1940. George Isaacs, the Minister of Labour, stated in Parliament that there would be no encouragement for others to follow their example. The passengers (including one stowaway) were the first large group of West Indian immigrants to the UK after the Second World War. [9], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°00′N 2°11′E / 37.000°N 2.183°E / 37.000; 2.183, It should not be confused with HMT, the prefix given to, Dockerill, Geoffrey, "On Fire at Sea" essay in compilation, citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies, Opening Ceremony of the Games of the XXX Olympiad, "Empire Windrush: Cultural Memory and Archival Disturbance", "Lloyd's Register, Navires a Vapeur et a Moteurs", "The Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 Report of Court (no. thurrock.gov.uk uses cookies to make the site simpler. [58] The last person to leave Windrush was the chief officer at 7:30 am. The 'Grays and Tilbury Gazette' newspaper reported the following week that in total 15 stowaways were discovered. All varieties of merchant ships – cargo vessels, tankers, tugs etc. The stowaways served brief prison sentences, but were eligible to remain in the United Kingdom on their release. At the time, the use of diesel engines was highly unusual in ships of this size, which would have been typically steam-powered. HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930. The chief officer heard the explosion from the ship's bridge and assembled the ship's firefighting squad, who happened to be on deck at the time doing routine work. One of the stowaways was Evelyn Wauchope, a 39-year-old dressmaker. About 23 nautical miles off the coast of Algeria, 2,800 metres beneath the surface of the Mediterranean sea, sleeps a monument to British history. The story of the Empire Windrush starts pre-war when, in 1936, Blohm and Voss shipbuilders of Hamburg built the ship. In June 1948, a ship docked at Tilbury, Essex, and changed the United Kingdom forever. They had learned the ship was to carry 3,000 German troops back to Germany and their purpose was to sink her during the trip. It features a series of photographs and films of the black musicians who over the years have come to inform Jamaican-inspired genres such as dub, jungle and grime. On June 22 nd we celebrate the arrival of the Empire Windrush, a landmark event in our nation’s story. Its first use was as one of Hitler's "Strength through joy" ships and named the SS Santa Rosa. The Empire Windrush and the ‘Windrush Generation’ are bywords for the post-war era of mass migration from the former colonies of the British Empire to the UK. She was used as a barracks ship at Stettin, then as a troopship for the invasion of Norway in April 1940. A military nurse was awarded the Royal Red Cross for her role in evacuating the patients under her care. This was used for British troopships and could stand for His Majesty's Troopship, His Majesty's Transport[6][7] or Hired Military Transport. [37] However, the first legislation controlling immigration was not passed until 1962. Her passengers included recovering wounded United Nations veterans of the Korean War, some soldiers from the Duke of Wellington's Regiment wounded at the Third Battle of the Hook in May 1953. [13] In 1936, the ship made a rendezvous at sea with the airship LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin. Many of Empire Windrush's passengers only intended to stay for a few years. The ship, MV Empire Windrush, arrived at Tilbury Docks in Essex, officially carrying 492 Caribbean passengers from Kingston, Jamaica, who had made the decision to travel after having been promised a better and more prosperous life in the UK… Many of the travelers were ex-servicemen, who had served in England during the war. [9], At 6:23 am, the first distress calls were transmitted; further SOS calls used the emergency radio transmitter as electrical power had been lost. 4 SCSA diesel engines (Blohm & Voss, Hamburg), double reduction geared driving two propellers. The Empire Windrush is associated with the arrival of Caribbean men, women and children in the UK from 22 June 1948 at Tilbury Docks, Essex. The second engineer was able to enter the engine room by wearing a smoke hood, but was unable to close a watertight door that might have contained the fire, due to a lack of electrical power. [3] Another ship was commissioned to cater for the demand – the MV Monte Cervantes. The Empire Windrush in dock at Southampton, 1954. The ship also carried two Scotch marine boilers to produce high-pressure steam for some auxiliary machinery. The Empire Windrush and the ‘Windrush Generation’ are bywords for the post-war era of mass migration from the former colonies of the British Empire to the UK. The Act was granting the status of citizenship to people of the commonwealth, giving them the right to live and work in Britain. These African-Caribbeans who came "with hope in their eyes' were the beginning of the modern history of Black people in the United Kingdom (UK). Tilbury Docks was opened in 1886, opening the way for trading goods and operating passenger services with connections to the rest of the world. [citation needed], As well as being renamed, the ship's designation prefix was changed from MV (Motor Vessel) to HMT. [54] All the passengers were saved and the only fatalities were the four crew killed in the engine room.[53]. He disembarked in front of an enthusiastic crowd wearing an SS uniform; he would spend his time in office actively proselytising Nazi ideology. Originally a German cruise ship, the ship was seized by the Nazi regime and used to transport troops during the Second World War. The name is a reference to one particular ship, MV Empire Windrush, which transported almost 500 passengers to the UK’s shores with … It refers to the ship MV Empire Windrush, which docked in Tilbury on 22 June 1948, bringing workers from Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and other islands, to help fill post-war UK labour shortages. In 1946, she was filled with chemical bombs and scuttled by the British in the Skagerrak. The day is named after the Empire Windrush, a ship that docked near London in 1948 carrying the first cohort of migrants from the Caribbean who … Windrush settlers arrive in Britain, 1948 – treasures of The National Archives (UK). Each set of lifeboat davits accommodated two lifeboats and without electrical power, raising the wire ropes to lower the second boat was an arduous and slow task. There was also an emergency generator. They were single-reduction geared in pairs to two propellers. Three days before the ship arrived, Arthur Creech Jones, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, wrote a Cabinet memorandum noting that the Jamaican Government could not legally prevent people from departing, and the British government could not legally prevent them from landing. [3], During the 1920s, Hamburg Süd believed there would be a lucrative business in carrying German immigrants to South America (see German Argentine). June 22, 1948 - The Empire Windrush passenger ship docked at Tilbury from Jamaica. Of the 46 deportees carried on Monte Rosa, all but two died in Auschwitz concentration camp. The RCAF and RAF crews claimed two torpedo hits on Monte Rosa; the ship was also struck by eight rockets and by cannon fire. An era defined by the single iconic image of the ship arriving at Tilbury Dock on 22nd June 1948, its stern anchor framed by the expectant faces of the country’s newest immigrants. At the start of World War II, Monte Rosa was allocated for military use. On the 72 nd anniversary of the arrival of HMT Empire Windrush at Tilbury Dock, the people of Southwark are grateful for Sam King MBE: his love of his community, hard work and spirit of service and the sacrifices made by him and the whole of the Windrush generation. An advert had appeared in a Jamaican newspaper offering cheap transport on the ship for anybody who wanted to come and work in the UK. The ex-troopship 'Empire Windrush' arriving at Tilbury Docks from Jamaica, with 482 Jamaicans on board, emigrating to Britain. [9] The ship quickly lost all electrical power as the four main electrical generators were located in the burning engine room; the backup generator was started, but problems with the main circuit breaker made its power unusable. The Windrush generation refers to the half a million people who came to the UK from the Caribbean between 1948 and 1971. [9][54] The ships responding to Windrush's distress call were the Dutch ship MV Mentor, the British P&O Cargo liner MV Socotra, the Norwegian ship SS Hemsefjell and the Italian ships SS Taigete and SS Helschell. They have helped to shape British social, cultural and political life. Many former servicemen took this opportunity to return to Britain with the hopes of finding better employment including in some cases rejoining the RAF; others decided to make the journey just to see what the "mother country" was like. The arrival of West Indian immigrants on the Windrush was not expected by the British government, and not welcome. [citation needed], Electrical power was initially provided by three, 350 kW DC generators, powered by internal combustion engines and installed in the engine room; a fourth generator was installed in 1949. On 21 June 1948, 492 West Indians arrived at Tilbury Docks, Essex on the SS Empire Windrush. When in port in Argentina, she hosted Nazi rallies for German-Argentine people. [18] Despite her damage, Monte Rosa was able to reach Aarhus in Denmark on 3 April. [1], The ship also carried 66 people whose last country of residence was Mexico – they were a group of Polish people who had travelled from Siberia via India and the Pacific, and who had been granted permission to settle in the United Kingdom under the terms of the Polish Resettlement Act 1947. It was reported by the local press: "Mr Ivor Cummings... of the Colonial Office welfare department came on board that night with other officials to talk with them". [1][2] 802 of these passengers gave their last country of residence as somewhere in the Caribbean: of these, 693 intended to settle in the United Kingdom. The Paper welcomed the sons and daughters from the 'Empire,' but this welcome did not permeate across all of society. 7933)", "D-LZ 129 "Graf Zeppelin" – Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek", "Roundups of Norwegian Jews — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum", "Max Manus – leader of the Norwegian Resistance movement", "A Windrush passenger 70 years on: 'I have no regrets about anything, 'Empire Windrush' Ship Arrives In Uk Carrying… 1948, "Sam King: Notting Hill Carnival founder and first black Southwark mayor dies", "Windrush Generation: 'They thought we should be planting bananas'", "Troopships. On a cloudy Tuesday in June, 72 years ago, the HMT Empire Windrush (originally the MV Monte Rosa passenger liner and cruise ship) completed its 8,000 mile crossing from the Caribbean to finally dock at Tilbury in Essex. Monte Rosa had the German Official Number 1640. 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